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Read About Panic Attacks Symptoms , Best Therapies Methods

June 30th, 2015 No comments

After repeatedly experiencing acute anxiety in a variety of contexts, the individual may develop an overall sense of becoming less and less able to competently manage anticipated episodes. Anxious persons seem to have lost, or perhaps never have had, the ability to generalize their skills in one area to deal effectively with contingencies in another. As a result, they may require that everything be carefully planned or resolved to the last detail, before they will take the risk of starting any new undertaking.

Often the feelings of anxiety are lessened or avoided through drugs, alcohol, sexual promiscuity, or other reactive behaviors. However, many positive or constructive behaviors are also motivated by a need to control or avoid the psychological discomfort of anxiety. Such behaviors are usually accompanied by the illusion that what one chooses to do will be so pleasant and so rewarding as to keep the anxiety permanently at bay. This, of course, is wishful thinking. Behaviors engaged in to allay anxiety, whether judged positively or negatively, may actually prove effective in reducing the feelings of anxiety. However, at the same time, they will prove to be either functional or dysfunctional in terms of how they affect the general well-being of the individual. In any case, the motivation to act is provided by a need to move away from the present or potential discomfort of anxiety.

Like other species, humans are preprogrammed to develop certain fears very readily, even without any traumatic experiences of them. At certain stages young children usually develop fears of sudden noise, movement, strangers, and animals. Most of US dislike being stared at, or being near the edge of a cliff, or being pricked or cut by a dentist or doctor. No one likes being separated from his or her loved ones, and their death is a pain we all have to bear eventually. Many people also have to endure calamities like fires, tornadoes, or floods. Fortunately the human spirit shows considerable resilience in the face of such adversity.

Since the beginning of modern theories and treatments of mental illness, the phenonemon of anxiety has been a cornerstone in the formulation and understanding of abnormal behavior. Freud’s early work with the hysterical “Anna O” and the phobic “Little Hans” LED him to view the experience of pathological anxiety in the form of specific phobias or nonspecific generalized anxiety as defensive mechanisms that possessed adaptive features for the individual.

Anxiety is one of the most difficult psychological terms to define, yet it is one of the most widely used. In addition to specific disorders characterized by chronic and debilitating anxiety listed in the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 1987), including generalized Anxiety Disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and POST-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety is mentioned as a symptom of most other disorders.

Perceived characteristics of an actual or imagined context can trigger feelings of anxiety. Predictable reactions of intense anxiety can become associated with specific persons or groups of people, objects, places, a variety of sensory stimulations, and particular times (i.e., early evenings, weekends, holidays). The anxious reactions appear to be constructed from fragments of memories or beliefs that relate in some negative way to the anticipated experience.

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Contact Lens Sanity

June 30th, 2015 No comments

Safety of contact lenses, like lawn mowers and automobiles, depends far more on human behavior than on the technology. It is a fact that few technologies START out with the intention of hurting people directly or through the environment, and most emerging threats to people are eventually recognized. It is also a fact that no situation in this world exists that cannot be made much worse by human ignorance, laziness, and stupidity.

So, how can people make good contact lenses unsafe?

The most common hazard is sloppy cleaning habits. The eyes and tears produce various proteins which can build up on contact lenses. Prescribed cleaning procedures will remove that residue. Getting lazy, skipping a scheduled cleaning, using old solutions or previously used stock, these can all result in film build up. At a minimum, this can result in irritated eyes and/or blurred vision. It can also cause infections and mechanical damage so severe as to prevent further use of contacts, or even cause blindness.

The second most common risk factor is external dirt and contaminants. Don’t swim or go into hot tub while wearing contacts unless they are shielded by leak proof swimming goggles. Don’t wear contacts in the presence of fumes from solvents, acids, cleaning solutions, etc.. Be alert to dust, pollen, other allergens. Any of those irritants can be trapped under or inside the contacts. And never be so stupid as to moisten lenses in the mouth instead of in a lens case with fresh solution, or with approved eye drops.

The third most common risk factor is wear time. This is an issue which is aggravated by claims from some contact lens makers. Stated simply, don’t wear contacts frequently around the clock, even if they are rated for 30 days or 3 months. In the short term, long wear lenses are probably safe. However, in the long term, insufficient reach of oxygen from the air to the eye surface (cornea) causes the eye to increase blood flow through a proliferation of new blood vessels, which can eventually block vision, like cataracts. The progress of this condition, called “neovascularization”, can be slow so not recognized until too late. Unless contacts have to be installed by a care giver, the wearer should seldom neglect rest times with lenses out. Some ophthalmologists recommend at LEAST twelve hours off every week with long-wear lenses.

And don’t overlook safety precautions. Just as spectacle users should have break resistant lenses or safety goggles, contact wearers should wear safety goggles when at risk. Rare stories tell of a hard contact lens stopping penetration by pieces of metal or glass that got through the eyelid, but modern contacts cover only a small portion of the eye.

The natural eye has evolved over eons to be largely self protecting. But don’t ignore common sense care to reduce the probability of injury.

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